Central Asian Phenomenon
Astana is the youngest capital in the world and at the same time it is the largest political, administrative, business and cultural center of the Republic where there are all governmental organizations, diplomatic representation and a lot of foreign enterprises.
Astana became the new capital in 1997 when offer of the President N. Nazarbaev on transfer was supported. The main reasons of transfer were important geopolitical situation of Astana, developed communication and transport infrastructure, free land for city development. Accelerated construction and nationalwide support let to construct modern city with unique views and style in Kazakhstan plain during 10 years.
The following figures show dynamics of development of Astana. At the present days about 700 thousand people live in Astana. Every year 40 thousand people or about 6% of whole number of citizens got status of capital inhabitant. Additionally the Republic index of migration growth is equal to 0,3%.
In the world practice stable migration growth in the large cities do not reach two present. For example in Paris and New-York annual growth temps are from 0.4% to 0.6% and in Shanghai and Calcutta is from 1.4% to 1.8%.
|Residence of the President of Kazakhstan "Ak Orda"||Baiterek (Monument)||Building JSC KazMunaiGaz|
Qualitative and quantitative growth is directly connected with architectural face of Astana where eastern traditions and audacious ideas of leading western architectures were joined. General plan of the city was developed by Japanese famous architect Kishe Kurokava taking into account ideas of the President Nursultan Nazarbaev referred to Europe shaping. Projects of inimitable Palace of Peace and Conciliation and “Han Shatyr” were made by Englishman Norman Foster and civic center were projected by Italian Manfredy Nikollety.
Trademark of the main city is architectural construction “Bayterek” situated in the center of new administrative center of the capital. The monument presents symbols in every detail. And gold sun in the head. And height up to 97 meters. And internal system design divided on three zones and embodied three creation bases. Figure 97 is not casual, it s year of transfer of capital from Almaty in Astana.
Other unique object is the tapering building Palace of Peace and Conciliation. The building constructed in 2006 takes special role in architecture of Kazakhstan. Its total area is equal to 25.5 thousand square meters. Opera hall with 1.5 thousand places is situated in foundation of the building and confession hall that is main room of the building is situated at the top. Conference of leaders of international and traditional religious took place in the Palace of Peace and Conciliation where were representative of all international and traditional religious.
Retail and entertainment centre “Han Shatyr” is in the line with the Palace of Peace and Conciliation and combines technical innovations with original formal decision that cannot be imagined in the Eastern countries. The center with height to 200 meters is tall dominant of the city. Its carcass is a large pavilion made of small net covered ETFE fluoropolymer that is unique material transmitting light and protecting internal area from hot and cold.
Another unique object is ethnographical park “Map of Kazakhstan – Atameken” that is magnetic museum in the open area where you can see all cities and historical monuments of Kazakhstan. Oceanarium single in the Central Asia was built in Astana.
|"Triumph of Astana" residential complex||"House of Ministries"||Palace of Peace and Accord|
In Astana great festivals, operas and film representations traditionally take place in the Civic Center “Kazakhstan” with 3500 places that is masterpiece of architectural ideas. It was projected by Italian architecture Manfredy Nikollety. The building is unique thanks to original system of ceiling movement. On the basis of this idea concert hall can change its volumes depending on presented composition, for example opera or symphony concert.
At the present time such projects as construction of light rail tramway, unique botanic garden and zoo are on the stage of realization. Already on September 2010 the New university of Astana City will throw open the doors representing all international standards of higher education.
Different international exhibitions, conferences, musical concerts and festivals of people of Kazakhstan take place in the city every year. There is National Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Russian Drama Theatre, a lot of museums here. It connects history of previous city with new capital.
XVIII session of General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization of United Nations took place in Astana in 2009. Astana as the first of capitals of Eastern Europe and Central Asia had the honor to hold a tourism forum of international level.
Thanks to the high international reputation Kazakhstan had opportunity to be representative of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in 2010. A lot of member governments of OSCE supported offer of the President of the Republic N. Nazarbaev on conduction of OSCE Summit in Astana on autumn 2010. The Summit have not took place since 1999.
Premium of UNESCO “City of the World” was granted on July 1999.
What city could enter in XXI century with such quick development? It is not wonder that Astana is cold the Central-Asian Phenomenon.